The UC Patented Strawberry Cultivars

 

 

 


The Albion Cultivar

Albion is a Day-neutral (ever-bearing) cultivar similar to Diamante. Fruiting plants of Albion are similar in size and vigor to Diamante, but more open, and more erect than plants of Diamante. Nursery source, chilling requirements, and planting dates should be very similar for Albion and Diamante.

Albion is quite resistant to Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae) and Phytophthora crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum), and relatively resistant to Anthracnose crown rot (Colletotrichum acutatum). When treated properly, it has tolerance to two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) equal or greater than Diamante. When treated with appropriate planting regimes, Albion has similar fruit size and produces equal or greater individual-plant yields than Diamante.

The production pattern for ‘Albion’ is similar to that for ‘Diamante’, although it is somewhat earlier to initiate fruiting with most cultural treatments, has a shallower production peak, and is less cyclical in its production pattern. Commercial appearance ratings have been consistently better than those for Diamante and the fraction of non-marketable fruit for Albion is about half that produced by Diamante. Fruit from Albion is firm, but slightly less so than fruit from Diamante. External and internal fruit color for Albion is darker than Diamante fruit. Subjectively, Albion has excellent flavor. The fruit will be outstanding for both fresh market and processing.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Albion from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Aromas Cultivar

A day-neutral strawberry cultivar; high-productivity replacement for Selva and Seascape.

Highlights

  • Exceptional fruit quality, with very good flavor
  • Yields superior to Selva and Seascape
  • Larger fruit and substantially lower cull rate than Selva
  • Robust environmental tolerance, particularly for conditions found near the central coast of California

Plant Description

Aromas is characterized by its exceptional fruit quality (with very good flavor), large fruit sizes on the order of 24-26 grams per fruit, and a plant form that is more erect in comparison with Selva and Seascape.  Also, fewer small fruit are produced, resulting in a cull rate that is much lower than Selva.

Commercial appearance ratings for Aromas fruit are comparable to or better than Selva and Seascape.  Fruit is dark red and adaptable to both fresh market and processing uses.  Aromas fruit is firmer than fruit from Selva and Seascape. Overall, Aromas is the day-neutral cultivar of choice when the special advantages of Diamante (excellent flavor for fresh fruit) and Pacific (later planting and excellent post-harvest processing qualities) are not required.

Disease and Pest Resistance

Aromas is relatively resistant to powdery mildew and Anthracnose crown rot, and is tolerant of strawberry viruses typically encountered in California.  When treated properly, it has tolerance to two-spotted spidermites equal or greater than Selva and Seascape.  It is moderately susceptible to common leaf spot and Verticillium wilt, so quality nursery stock and good site preparation are recommended.  Aromas has a broader environmental tolerance than other day-neutral cultivars recently released by the University of California (Diamante and Pacific), so Aromas is the day-neutral of choice when environmental conditions are the decisive factor.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Aromas from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Benicia and Mojave Cultivars

The Strawberry Improvement program at UC Davis has released two new short-day cultivars originating from crosses performed in 2004: ‘Benicia’ and ‘Mojave.’ These
cultivars exhibit uniformly high productivity, similar to ‘Ventana’ in both cases, and are adapted to early fall planting and winter production systems. These cultivars have overall fruit quality superior to ‘Ventana.’ These cultivars are expected to complement or replace ‘Ventana’ and ‘Palomar’ where these cultivars are currently grown in California.

‘Benicia’ has moderate to high plant vigor, but is slightly smaller in plant size than ‘Ventana,’ with a similar production pattern. It may require slightly less space in the fruiting field than ‘Ventana.’ The fruit for ‘Benicia’ is slightly larger and slightly firmer than for ‘Ventana.’ Post harvest traits for ‘Benicia’ are similar to those for ‘Ventana,’ although the fruit is slightly darker and has a more evenly colored interior. ‘Benicia’ has very good flavor, substantially better than ‘Ventana’ in early spring. ‘Benicia’ has a good disease resistance profile, although it is susceptible to Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae); this disease will require close control by both nursery and fruit growers in order to farm this cultivar successfully. Nursery productivity for ‘Benicia’ is superior to that for ‘Ventana.’

‘Mojave’ has moderate to high plant vigor, especially early in the season, but is slightly smaller in plant size than ‘Ventana’ throughout the season. With early fall planting, ‘Mojave’ has a similar production pattern to ‘Ventana.’ It may require slightly less space in the fruiting field than ‘Ventana.’ The fruit for ‘Mojave’ is substantially larger than for ‘Ventana,’ but is slightly less firm. Post harvest traits for ‘Benicia’ are similar to those for ‘Ventana.’ ‘Mojave’ has very good flavor, substantially better than ‘Ventana’ in early spring. ‘Benicia’ has a good disease resistance profile, although it is susceptible to Phytophthora crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum); this disease will require close control by both nursery and fruit growers in order to farm this cultivar successfully. Nursery productivity for ‘Mojave’ is superior to that for ‘Ventana.’

Table 1. Performance of Camarosa, Ventana and Palomar compared with Benicia and Mojave at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2008-2010

Item Early Yield (C/Acre) Yield (C/Acre) Appearance Score (5=best) Fruit Size (g/fruit) Firmness
Camarosa
1,241
6,963
2.7
28.5
10.3
Ventana
2,953
7,840
2.9
32.9
9.7
Palomar
2,503
7,911
3.7
33.8
10.6
Benicia (C225)
3,303
7,691
3.6
34.3
10.0
Mojave (C227)
2,187
6,559
3.7
35.7
9.6

Macdoel plants harvested 10-15, planted with 1 week storage (52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Table 2. Disease resistance scores for Camarosa, Ventana and Palomar compared with Benicia and Mojave in 2008-2010.

Item Phytophthora Resistance Score (5=best) Verticillium Resistance Score (5=best) Colletotrichum Resistance Score1 (5=best)
Camarosa
3.0
3.5
2.8
Ventana
2.3
3.2
3.0
Palomar
3.1
4.1
3.1
Benicia (C225)
3.6
2.2
2.8
Mojave (C227)
2.5
4.1
3.0

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Benicia and Mojave from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Cabrillo Cultivar

The Strawberry Breeding program at UC Davis has released a new day-neutral cultivar originating from a cross performed in 2008: Cabrillo, formerly identified as CN236 and originally referenced as Cal 8.181-1. This cultivar exhibits uniformly high productivity, greater than for San Andreas and Monterey, and is adapted to standard fall planting and winter production systems, as well as to spring and summer planting. This cultivar has overall fruit quality equal or superior to presently available day-neutral cultivars.

Cabrillo has slightly larger fruit and produces greater individual-plant yield than any of the comparison cultivars. It has a similar production pattern to Albion with most cultural treatments, although it is substantially more adapted to later-season winter planting and spring planting.  Commercial appearance ratings have been similar to or better than those for all of the comparison cultivars, especially better than Portola in summer planting systems; these superior appearance scores translate directly into a larger fraction of marketable fruit than is produced by the comparison cultivars.  Fruit for Cabrillo is firmer than fruit from the comparison cultivars.  Subjectively, Cabrillo has outstanding flavor.

Cabrillo is moderately resistant to powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca  macularis), and moderately susceptible to Anthracnose crown rot (Colletotrichum acutatum). It is moderately resistant to Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), Phytophthora crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) and common leaf spot (Ramularia tulasnei). When treated properly, it has tolerance to two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) equal to that for the comparison cultivars. Nursery productivity for Cabrillo is equal or superior to that for existing day-neutral cultivars.

Performance of Cabrillo compared with Three DN Selections at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2012 – 2013

 

 

Item

 

Yield

(C/Acre)

Appearance

Score

(5=best)

Fruit

Size

(g/fruit)

 

Firmness

‘Albion’ 8,325 4.1 32.6 12.2
‘San Andreas’ 9,774 4.3 32.0 12.2
‘Portola’ 9,172 3.4 31.7 11.4
‘Cabrillo’ (CN236) 11,605 4.3 32.0 12.2

Macdoel plants harvested 10-15, planted with 2.5 weeks storage

(52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Qualitative Evaluations of Performance for Cabrillo

Cabrillo Compared with Monterey Cabrillo Compared with San Andreas
Productivity + +
Production Pattern 0 0
Fruit Size 0 +
Firmness + +
Appearance + 0
Flavor 0 +
Post-harvest Storage + +
Rain/weather Tolerance + +
Disease Tolerance 0 0
Mite Tolerance 0 0
Harvest Ease + +
Cull Rate + +
Runners (Nursery) + +

“+”, “0”, or “-” implies performance for Cabrillo that is superior to, similar to, or inferior to the comparison cultivar in each of the listed categories

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Cabrillo from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Camino Real Cultivar

Camino Real (C213) is a short-day (June bearing) cultivar similar to Camarosa and Gaviota. Fruiting plants of Camino Real are smaller, more compact, more open, more erect, and less vigorous than plants of Camarosa. Camino Real plants are more compact but less erect than Gaviota plants. Camino Real is moderately susceptible to common leaf spot (Ramularia tulasnei) and somewhat sensitive to powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis). It is quite resistant to Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae) and Phytophthora crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum), and relatively resistant to Anthracnose crown rot (Colletotrichum acutatum). When treated properly, it has tolerance to two-spotted spidermites (Tetranychus urticae) equal or greater than Gaviota.

When treated with appropriate planting regimes, Camino Real has larger fruit and produces greater individual-plant yields than Gaviota or Camarosa. The production pattern for Camino Real is similar to that for Camarosa, although it is somewhat later to initiate fruiting with most cultural treatments. Commercial appearance ratings have been better than those for Gaviota and Camarosa and trials conducted in Santa Maria, CA in 1998-98 indicate a fraction of non-marketable fruit that is about half that produced by Camarosa. Fruit from Camino Real is substantially firmer than fruit from Gaviota and similar in firmness to Camarosa. External and internal fruit color for Camino Real is darker than Camarosa and slightly darker than Gaviota. Subjectively, Camino Real has very good flavor. The fruit will be outstanding for both fresh market and processing.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Camino Real from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Diamante Cultivar

A day-neutral strawberry cultivar; premium-quality replacement for Selva and Seascape for fresh fruit production.

Highlights

  • Exceptional fresh fruit quality and excellent flavor with very large fruit size
  • Yields superior to Selva and Seascape
  • Very compact, erect form facilitates higher plant densities and easier harvest
  • Shorter cold storage period prior to planting
  • Very low cull rate

Plant Description

Diamante is characterized by its exceptional fruit quality and excellent flavor, very large fruit sizes on the order of 30-31 grams per fruit, and a plant form that is very compact and more erect in comparison with Selva and Seascape. Also, fewer small fruit are produced, resulting in a cull rate that is much lower than Selva.

Commercial appearance ratings for Diamante fruit are significantly better than Selva and Seascape. Diamante fruit is as firm as fruit from Selva and firmer than Seascape. Diamante’s internal fruit color is lighter than other day-neutral cultivars, so it is not as well suited for the processing industry as it is for the fresh fruit industry. Overall, Diamante is the day-neutral cultivar of choice when premium-quality fresh fruit are desired and the special advantages of Aromas (higher productivity) and Pacific (later planting and excellent post-harvest processing qualities) are not required.

Propagation and Growth

Diamante is similar to Selva and Seascape in requiring cold storage prior to planting, except that Diamante requires less chilling for optimal performance. Diamante begins fruiting two to three weeks later than Selva or Seascape, so a nursery harvest is best done in mid-October to provide a long fall growing season. Full-bed polyethylene mulch should be applied relatively early with Diamante, with tarps being applied by mid-December to avoid yield reductions and excess runner production.

Disease and Pest Resistance

Diamante is relatively resistant to powdery mildew, and is tolerant of strawberry viruses typically encountered in California. When treated properly, it has tolerance to two-spotted spidermites substantially greater than Selva and Seascape. It is moderately susceptible to common leaf spot, Verticillium wilt, Phytophthora cactorum crown rot, and Anthracnose crown rot, so quality nursery stock and good site preparation are recommended.

Performance Evaluations

Winter planting trials carried out at the Watsonville Research Facility show that Diamante ranks as the second highest-yielding cultivar among the day-neutral cultivars tested, which included the well-established Seascape and Selva cultivars and the new Aromas and Pacific cultivars. The increase in yield over Seascape, Selva, and Pacific was quite pronounced, and Diamante was only moderately lower than the highest yielding cultivar, Aromas.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Diamante from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Fronteras Cultivar

The short-day selection C235, has performed well in trials conducted at all three of the major production locations in California and has been assigned the designation Fronteras. The qualitative assessments provided below represent the general consensus of UC breeders and grower cooperators that have evaluated these selections in trials conducted throughout California.

Fronteras has total productivity greater than Ventana and Benicia in all systems and locations, but initiates production slightly later. Fronteras is substantially earlier in production pattern than Camarosa. Plants of Fronteras are larger than for Ventana and Benicia but more erect, and will tolerate similar planting density.

Fronteras had substantially larger fruit, lower cull rates and/or higher appearance scores than Ventana and Benicia in all locations. Harvest efficiency for Fronteras is expected to be higher than Ventana and Benicia, due to larger fruit and lower cull rates. Fruit for Fronteras is slightly firmer than Ventana fruit, similar in firmness to Benicia. Importantly, the subjective evaluations of flavor were excellent for Fronteras. Fronteras fruit has excellent fruit color as well, slightly darker both internally and externally than Ventana.

Fronteras is moderately or highly resistant to Verticillium, Fusarium, and Phytophthora cactorum. Preliminary trials indicate that Fronteras has substantial resistance to Macrophomina. It has good resistance to powdery mildew and seems tolerant of spider mites.

Performance of Camarosa, Ventana, and Benicia compared with new short- day selections at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2011-13

 

Item

Early Yield (C/Acre)  

Yield

(C/Acre)

Appearance Score (5=best) Fruit Size (g/fruit)  

Firmness

Camarosa 1,655 5,740 2.8 27.1 11.6
Ventana 2,718 6,579 3.3 30.1 10.2
Benicia 2,204 5,215 3.5 33.1 11.1
Petaluma 2,763 7,295 4.2 32.6 12.2
Grenada 3,339 7,941 3.7 33.1 11.9
Fronteras 2,447 8,883 4.2 35.1 11.1

Macdoel plants harvested October 15-16, planted with 1 week storage (52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Disease Resistance Scores: UC Cultivars & New Selections, 2011-13

 

Genotype

Phytophthora Resistance Score (5=best) Verticillium Resistance Score (5=best) Colletotrichum Resistance Score

(5=best)

Fusarium Resistance Score (5=best) Macrophomina Resistance Score

(5=best)

Camarosa 3.6 2.7 2.2 2.9 2.6
Ventana 2.1 2.9 3.0 4.2 4.3
Benicia 3.5 1.6 2.5 3.4 4.0
Merced 4.5 3.0 1.8 3.6 3.3
Petaluma 3.9 4.2 2.2 3.0 5.0
Grenada 3.9 3.3 1.9 1.2 4.7
Fronteras 4.1 3.7 2.5 4.9 5.0

 

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Fronteras from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


Gaviota Strawberry Cultivar

A short-day strawberry cultivar with extended flowering under cool conditions (Aiko-type); replacement for summer-planted Pajaro and winter-planted Camarosa and Chandler.

Highlights

  • Excellent fruit quality and flavor
  • Yields superior to Pajaro (summer planting) and equal or better than Camarosa and Chandler (winter planting)
  • Larger fruit, easier harvest, and much lower cull rate than Camarosa
  • Robust environmental tolerance, particularly resistant to rain damage, powder mildew, and anthracnose crown rot

Plant Description

Gaviota is characterized by its exceptional fruit quality (especially flavor), large fruit sizes on the order of 26-28 grams per fruit, and a plant form that is open, compact, and erect in comparison with Camarosa and Chandler.  Also, fewer small fruit are produced, resulting in a cull rate that is only half that of Camarosa.  Gaviota fruit have better rain tolerance than Camarosa.

Commercial appearance ratings for Gaviota fruit are comparable to or better than Chandler and Camarosa.  Gaviota fruit is substantially firmer than fruit from Chandler but is slightly less firm than Camarosa.  Gaviota’s flavor is less aromatic than Chandler, but has better balance and texture than Camarosa.  Fruit color is similar to Camarosa.  Overall, Gaviota fruit makes an excellent choice for both fresh and processed products.

Disease and Pest Resistance

Gaviota is relatively resistant to powdery mildew and Anthracnose crown rot, and is tolerant of strawberry viruses typically encountered in California.  When treated properly, it has tolerance to two-spotted spidermites equal or greater than Chandler and Camarosa.  It is moderately susceptible to common leaf spot, Verticillium wilt, and Phytophthora cactorum crown rot, so quality nursery stock and good site preparation are recommended.

Performance Evaluations

Cold-stored “frigo” plants can be used for summer plantings, and plants can be established in late October or early November using high elevation planting stock.  Summer planting trials carried out at the Watsonville Research Facility in 1995 and 1996 show that while Gaviota yields less than Camarosa on a per plant basis, the higher planting density made possible by its more compact form allows for equal or superior yields per acre.  This advantage in crates per acre yielded is typically 5% to 10%, with a very pronounced difference in late-season yields.  Gaviota yields outperformed Pajaro yields in these tests by an even more substantial margin.

Winter planting trials carried out at Watsonville show similar advantages in per acre yields for Gaviota over Camarosa, particularly for plants that had undergone longer periods of supplemental storage. Gaviota is not adapted to the early fall digging/planting system used in Southern California.  It was also noted that the greater rain tolerance and relatively later fruiting period for Gaviota might offer further advantages in unusually wet seasons by avoiding some of the fruit damage that might otherwise occur.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Gaviota from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Grenada Cultivar

The short-day selection C232, has performed well in trials conducted at all three of the major production locations in California and has been assigned the designation Grenada. The qualitative assessments provided below represent the general consensus of UC breeders and grower cooperators that have evaluated these selections in trials conducted throughout California.

Grenada has greater total productivity than Ventana and Benicia in most systems and locations, and generally produces more early-season fruit than the comparison cultivars. Plants of Grenada are similar in size to Ventana and Benicia but, with early planting, tend to remain smaller during the season due to very high early fruit loads.

Grenada had substantially larger fruit, lower cull rates and/or higher appearance scores than Ventana in all locations, lower cull rates and/or higher appearance scores than Benicia. Harvest efficiency for Grenada is expected to be higher than Ventana and Benicia, due to larger fruit and lower cull rates. Fruit for Grenada is slightly firmer than Benicia fruit, substantially firmer than for Ventana. Importantly, the subjective evaluations of flavor and post-harvest storage capacity were excellent for Grenada. Grenada fruit has excellent fruit color as well, slightly darker both internally and externally than Ventana.

Grenada has variable reaction to soil and foliar diseases. Grenada is moderately sensitive to Verticillium and highly susceptible to Fusarium, but is moderately resistant to Phytophthora cactorum. Preliminary trials indicate that Grenada has substantial resistance to Macrophomina. It has good resistance to powdery mildew and seems tolerant of spidermites.

Performance of Camarosa, Ventana, and Benicia compared with new short- day selections at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2011-13

 

Item

Early Yield (C/Acre)  

Yield

(C/Acre)

Appearance Score (5=best) Fruit Size (g/fruit)  

Firmness

Camarosa 1,655 5,740 2.8 27.1 11.6
Ventana 2,718 6,579 3.3 30.1 10.2
Benicia 2,204 5,215 3.5 33.1 11.1
Petaluma 2,763 7,295 4.2 32.6 12.2
Grenada 3,339 7,941 3.7 33.1 11.9
Fronteras 2,447 8,883 4.2 35.1 11.1

Macdoel plants harvested October 15-16, planted with 1 week storage (52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Disease Resistance Scores: UC Cultivars & New Selections, 2011-13

 

Genotype

Phytophthora Resistance Score (5=best) Verticillium Resistance Score (5=best) Colletotrichum Resistance Score

(5=best)

Fusarium Resistance Score (5=best) Macrophomina Resistance Score

(5=best)

Camarosa 3.6 2.7 2.2 2.9 2.6
Ventana 2.1 2.9 3.0 4.2 4.3
Benicia 3.5 1.6 2.5 3.4 4.0
Merced 4.5 3.0 1.8 3.6 3.3
Petaluma 3.9 4.2 2.2 3.0 5.0
Grenada 3.9 3.3 1.9 1.2 4.7
Fronteras 4.1 3.7 2.5 4.9 5.0

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Grenada from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Merced Cultivar

The short-day selection C229, has performed well in trials conducted at all three of the major production locations in California and has been assigned the designation Merced. The qualitative assessments provided below represent the general consensus of UC breeders and grower cooperators that have evaluated these selections in trials conducted throughout California.

Merced has total productivity similar to Ventana and Benicia in some systems and locations, but a production pattern more similar to Camarosa than the comparison cultivars. Specifically, Merced has similar total yield to Ventana and Benicia in central California locations, but slightly lower seasonal yield in southern California. Plants of Merced are smaller than for Ventana and Benicia and will tolerate increased planting density. Merced initiates crown division and flowering more slowly than Ventana and Benicia and will produce less early fruit when established on the same date in southern California.

Merced had substantially larger fruit, lower cull rates and/or higher appearance scores than Ventana and Benicia in all locations. Harvest efficiency for Merced is expected to be higher than Ventana and Benicia, due to larger fruit, lower cull rates and more compact plants, and this is especially important later in the season. Fruit for Merced is slightly firmer than Benicia fruit, substantially firmer than for Ventana. Importantly, the subjective evaluations of flavor and post-harvest storage capacity were excellent for Merced. Merced fruit has excellent fruit color as well, slightly lighter both internally and externally than Ventana.

Merced has variable reaction to soil and foliar diseases. Merced is moderately sensitive to Verticillium and Fusarium, but is resistant to Phytophthora cactorum. It has good resistance to powdery mildew and seems tolerant of spidermites.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Merced from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Monterey Cultivar

Monterey is moderate in day-neutrality, slightly stronger flowering than Albion with a similar production pattern. It is a vigorous plant and may require slightly more space than Albion. The fruit for Monterey is slightly larger but less firm than for Albion. Post-harvest traits for Monterey are similar to those for Albion. Monterey has outstanding flavor with a distinct sweet aftertaste that is unique among California cultivars. Monterey has a good disease resistance profile, although it is susceptible to powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis); this disease will require close control by both nursery and fruit growers in order to farm this cultivar successfully. Nursery productivity for Monterey is exceptional.

Performance of Aromas, Diamante, and Albion compared with Monterey, San Andreas, and Portola at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2005-2007

Item Yield (C/Acre) Late Yield (C/Acre) Appearance Score (5=best) Fruit Size (g/fruit) Firmness
Aromas
9,495
2,401
3.1
27.6
9.5
Diamante
8,313
2,420
3.5
31.5
11.0
Albion
7,783
2,247
3.9
30.6
11.2
Monterey
10,554
3,062
3.4
32.6
10.8
San Andreas
10,414
3,238
4.4
30.8
11.6
Portola
10,335
3,324
3.6
31.5
10.2

Macdoel plants harvested 10-15, planted with 2.5-3.5 weeks storage (52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Disease resistance scores for Albion compared with Monterey, San Andreas, and Portola in 2005-2007

Cultivar Phytophthora Resistance Score (5=best) Verticillium Resistance Score (5=best) Colletotrichum Resistance Score (5=best)
Albion
4.3
3.8
3.4
Monterey (CN222)
3.2
3.4
2.4
San Andreas (CN223)
3.8
3.8
2.9
Portola (CN224)
4.4
3.3
2.7

Qualitative evaluations of performance for Monterey, San Andreas, and Portola compared with Albion

Monterey compared w/ Albion
San Andreas compared w/ Albion
Portola compared w/ Albion
Productivity
+
+
+
Production Pattern
0
0
+
Fruit Size
+
0
0
Firmness
0
+
0
Appearance
+
0
Flavor
+
0
0
Post-harvest Storage
0
0
Rain/weather Tolerance
0
+
Disease Tolerance
0
0
Mite Tolerance
0
0
0
Harvest Ease
+
+
Cull Rate
0
+
0
Runners (Nursery)
0
+
0

“+”, “0”, or “-” implies performance for each selection that is superior to, similar to, or inferior to Albion in each of the listed categories

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Monterey from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Palomar Cultivar

The short-day cultivar Palomar (previously designated C221 or Cal. 00.259-2) has performed well in trials conducted in the three major production regions of California during the past two years and was released to California nurseries for commercial propagation in spring of 2007.

In 2004-05 and 2005-06, Palomar produced similar early yield to Ventana at all locations, and exceeded seasonal yield for Ventana at Santa Maria (Table 1). Palomar had substantially lower cull rates and/or higher appearance scores than Ventana in all trial locations, with fruit size similar to that of Ventana. Importantly, firmness, and the subjective evaluations of flavor and post-harvest fruit quality were excellent for Palomar. In Irvine in 2005-06, Palomar had 26% greater early-season yield than Ventana, albeit with less total yield, but with greater fruit size and improved firmness. Preliminary results of 2006-07 field trials in Irvine indicate that Palomar produced 78% greater yield than Ventana (995 and 558 crates/acre for Palomar and Ventana, respectively) to January 18, 2007, with higher fruit appearance scores and a lower cull rate.

An additional feature of selection Palomar is that plant size is substantially smaller than that of Ventana, a factor that will permit increased planting density and facilitate harvest efficiency. However, with less vegetative vigor and a marked tendency to fruit heavily early in the season, growers in southern California may need to consider management practices that encourage plant vegetative growth, such as the use of clear polyethylene bed mulch and careful soil moisture and fertility management.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Palomar from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Petaluma Cultivar

The short-day selection C231, has performed well in trials conducted at all three of the major production locations in California and has been assigned the designation Petaluma. The qualitative assessments provided below (Table 1) represent the general consensus of UC breeders and grower cooperators that have evaluated these selections in trials conducted throughout California.

Petaluma has total productivity similar or superior to Ventana and Benicia in most systems and locations, with early productivity similar to that of the comparison cultivars. Plants of Petaluma are slightly smaller than for Ventana and Benicia and will tolerate increased planting density.

Petaluma had larger fruit, lower cull rates and/or substantially higher appearance scores than Ventana and Benicia in all locations. Harvest efficiency for Petaluma is expected to be higher than Ventana and Benicia, due to larger fruit, lower cull rates and more compact plants, especially later in the season. Fruit for Petaluma is substantially firmer than for Benicia or Ventana. Importantly, the subjective evaluations of flavor and post-harvest storage capacity were excellent for Petaluma. Petaluma fruit has excellent fruit color as well, slightly darker both internally and externally than for Ventana.

Petaluma has variable reaction to soil and foliar diseases. Petaluma is moderately sensitive to Fusarium, but is moderately resistant to Verticillium and Phytophthora cactorum. Preliminary trials indicate that it may have substantial resistance to Macrophomina. It has good resistance to powdery mildew and seems tolerant of spider mites.

Performance of Camarosa, Ventana, and Benicia compared with new short- day selections at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2011-13

 

Item

Early Yield (C/Acre)  

Yield

(C/Acre)

Appearance Score (5=best) Fruit Size (g/fruit)  

Firmness

Camarosa 1,655 5,740 2.8 27.1 11.6
Ventana 2,718 6,579 3.3 30.1 10.2
Benicia 2,204 5,215 3.5 33.1 11.1
Petaluma 2,763 7,295 4.2 32.6 12.2
Grenada 3,339 7,941 3.7 33.1 11.9
Fronteras 2,447 8,883 4.2 35.1 11.1

 Macdoel plants harvested October 15-16, planted with 1 week storage (52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Disease Resistance Scores: UC Cultivars & New Selections, 2011-13

 

Genotype

Phytophthora Resistance Score (5=best) Verticillium Resistance Score (5=best) Colletotrichum Resistance Score

(5=best)

Fusarium Resistance Score (5=best) Macrophomina Resistance Score

(5=best)

Camarosa 3.6 2.7 2.2 2.9 2.6
Ventana 2.1 2.9 3.0 4.2 4.3
Benicia 3.5 1.6 2.5 3.4 4.0
Merced 4.5 3.0 1.8 3.6 3.3
Petaluma 3.9 4.2 2.2 3.0 5.0
Grenada 3.9 3.3 1.9 1.2 4.7
Fronteras 4.1 3.7 2.5 4.9 5.0

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Petaluma from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Portola Cultivar

Portola is a strong day-neutral cultivar with broad adaptability. This cultivar can be used in standard winter planting systems, where it is slightly earlier than Albion to initiate fruiting. Due to a strong flowering response Portola is especially well adapted to spring and summer planting systems. Portola has a vigorous plant and may require slightly lower plant density than Albion. The fruit for Portola is similar in size to Albion but lighter in color and somewhat shinier. Post-harvest characteristics for Portola are similar to those for Albion although it is slightly less tolerant to rain. Fruit flavor for Portola is excellent and especially consistent throughout the fruiting season. Portola has a good disease resistance profile with no outstanding cautions. Nursery productivity for Portola is exceptional.

Performance of Aromas, Diamante, and Albion compared with Monterey, San Andreas, and Portola at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2005-2007

Item Yield (C/Acre) Late Yield (C/Acre) Appearance Score (5=best) Fruit Size (g/fruit) Firmness
Aromas 9,495 2,401 3.1 27.6 9.5
Diamante 8,313 2,420 3.5 31.5 11.0
Albion 7,783 2,247 3.9 30.6 11.2
Monterey 10,554 3,062 3.4 32.6 10.8
San Andreas 10,414 3,238 4.4 30.8 11.6
Portola 10,335 3,324 3.6 31.5 10.2

Macdoel plants harvested 10-15, planted with 2.5-3.5 weeks storage (52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Disease resistance scores for Albion compared with Monterey, San Andreas, and Portola in 2005-2007

Cultivar Phytophthora Resistance Score(5=best) Verticillium Resistance Score(5=best) Colletotrichum Resistance Score(5=best)
Albion 4.3 3.8 3.4
Monterey (CN222) 3.2 3.4 2.4
San Andreas (CN223) 3.8 3.8 2.9
Portola (CN224) 4.4 3.3 2.7

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Portola from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The San Andreas Cultivar

San Andreas is a moderate day-neutral with a production pattern very similar to Albion. Plant vigor for San Andreas is somewhat higher than for Albion early in the season but plant size throughout the fruiting season is similar to Albion due to its high and consistent productivity. This cultivar produces few runners in the fruiting field.  Nursery productivity for San Andreas is similar to or slightly below that for Albion.

The fruit for San Andreas is exceptional in appearance and especially superior to Albion early in the season. The fruit color for San Andreas fruit is slightly lighter than for Albion, and it has similar post harvest characteristics. The flavor of San Andreas is outstanding, very similar to that for Albion. San Andreas has a good disease resistance profile with no outstanding cautions. Its typically high quality fruit early in the season, together with a low chilling requirement, make this a good candidate cultivar for southern California.

Performance of Aromas, Diamante, and Albion compared with Monterey, San Andreas, and Portola at the Watsonville Research Facility in 2005-2007

Item Yield (C/Acre) Late Yield (C/Acre) Appearance Score (5=best) Fruit Size (g/fruit) Firmness
Aromas 9,495 2,401 3.1 27.6 9.5
Diamante 8,313 2,420 3.5 31.5 11.0
Albion 7,783 2,247 3.9 30.6 11.2
Monterey 10,554 3,062 3.4 32.6 10.8
San Andreas 10,414 3,238 4.4 30.8 11.6
Portola 10,335 3,324 3.6 31.5 10.2

Macdoel plants harvested 10-15, planted with 2.5-3.5 weeks storage (52″ 2-row beds, 17,300 plants/acre)

Disease resistance scores for Albion compared with Monterey, San Andreas, and Portola in 2005-2007

Cultivar Phytophthora Resistance Score(5=best) Verticillium Resistance Score(5=best) Colletotrichum Resistance Score(5=best)
Albion 4.3 3.8 3.4
Monterey (CN222) 3.2 3.4 2.4
San Andreas (CN223) 3.8 3.8 2.9
Portola (CN224) 4.4 3.3 2.7

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain San Andreas from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.


The Ventana Cultivar

Ventana (C216) is a short-day (June bearing) cultivar similar to Camarosa. Fruiting plants of Ventana are large and vigorous, similar to Camarosa, but more open than plants of Camarosa; Ventana plants are larger and less erect than plants of Gaviota. Ventana is moderately susceptible to common leaf spot (Ramularia tulasnei) and Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae). It is quite resistant to Phytophthora crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum), and relatively resistant to powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis). When treated properly, it has tolerance to two-spotted spidermites (Tetranychus urticae) equal or greater than Gaviota and Camarosa.

When treated with appropriate planting regimes, Ventana has similar fruit size and produces greater individual-plant yields than Gaviota or Camarosa. In general, Ventana is well adapted to very early season planting. The production pattern for Ventana is similar to that for Camarosa: it initiates fruiting at the same time, but produces greater quantities of early-season fruit with most cultural treatments. Commercial appearance ratings have been better than those for Camarosa, and trials conducted in Santa Maria, CA in 1999-2000 indicate a fraction of non-marketable fruit that is less than half that produced by Camarosa.

Fruit for Ventana is slightly firmer than fruit from Gaviota but slightly less firm than Camarosa. External and internal fruit color for Ventana is lighter than Camarosa and Gaviota, with substantially brighter red coloration. Subjectively, Ventana has very good flavor. The fruit will be outstanding for both fresh market and processing.

Commercial Availability

Strawberry producers can obtain Ventana from commercial nurseries licensed by the University of California.  See Licensed Nurseries List.

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